Update on Fungal Disease: From Establish Infection to Clinical Manifestation


Fungal diseases have emerged as an important cause of morbidity and mortality, especially among immunocompromised patients. Pathogenic fungi have evolved an array of virulence factors to survive within the host and to outwit immune defenses. Fungi may cause a wide range of diseases in humans that range in extent from superficial to disseminated infections.

Generally, the site of infections classifies the type of fungal disease, which can be divided into superficial, cutaneous, subcutaneous and systemic. In addition, the fungal virulence factors determine whether the infection will become established in the host. A primary pathogen may infect an immunologically normal host, whereas, an opportunistic pathogen requires some compromise of the host immune defenses in order for the infection to become established. 

Fungal diseases have significantly increased in the worldwide causing emergence in human health. This increase is related to differences factors, especially, the virulence changes of the fungi which difficulty the access of antifungal to combat the infections.

So, the understanding of association between the disease establishment, fungal specific virulence and clinical manifestation improves the diagnostic methods and allows the development of new strategies to combat the fungal diseases.

Alex John
Journal of Biotechnology & Biomaterials
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