The Impact of Paradise in Persian Garden Design
From the time that Islam came to Iran, Iranian through Islamic centuries until now a garden is a kind of paradise in people opinion. Surely the reason that caused such belief is dryness of Iran plateau. In the ancient pieces found in Iran, one can see the validity of the gardens, in form of initial stage of time from the mountains and long periods big Iranian plateau, they cultivate their forms, sketch different aspect of their life and their opinion on the earthenware. On some of these pieces, trees surround the river, and some others show the river in four parts. This kind of crossing designation that has an axis longer than another one, this form of design called Chahar Bagh. This type of design is common in Sassanid period (642-224). Respect to water and even worshiping flowing water and river basin, is common in this period. In Sassanid period rulers’ selected particular place to sketch their religious view and descriptions about their victory in huge stones, in each place a river basin that was overflowed by spring is created at the foot of stone. A little more than a millennium, one of Qajar king in 19th century 13th Hijra selected such place in south of Tehran called ray and ordered to create a portray of him carved in stone while he sat on his throne. Because the water is a fundamental factor for the creation a garden, so its source has a vital importance.
One of the main purposes of the existence and building of these gardens was to provide various forms of relaxation such as leisurely or even spiritual. “Pairi Daeza” is a Persian phrase meaning enclosed space. This term can also be seen in Christian mythology who had adopted it to define and describe paradise on earth, i.e., Garden of Eden. The gardens could be built with reliance on any Feature desired by the architect like nature or structure, but irrespective of these aspects, its basic goal must be to encourage sentimentality and thoughts.
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