Prevention of Risk on Public Oral health
Oral diseases have a major impact on public health worldwide. A healthy mouth is a central part of living. It enables us to enjoy life when eating, drinking, and socializing. Both untreated caries and periodontal disease are among the most prevalent chronic diseases of humans, causing suffering and even death. In addition, oral diseases generate high costs for both individuals and society. Risk assessment in health sciences is the analysis of the probability that a disease will occur in the future. To formulate risk-based prevention programs, knowledge of disease etiology as well as prevalence in different populations is of utmost importance. In addition to preventive programs, aimed at the whole population, it is necessary to provide individual programs based on assessed risk for individuals. This facilitates the reduction of the number of individuals developing oral disease and also ensures that a high quality of dental care is provided.
To assess the need for preventive and treatment interventions, and also to evaluate the effects of preventive measures in a population, epidemiological studies are performed. Epidemiology can be defined as “the study of the distribution and determinants of health-related states or events in specified populations, and the application of this study to the control of health problems”. Another important aspect is to explore trends and future demands for public health promotion. During the 1970s, preventive dental care programs for all children and adolescents were introduced in Jönköping; child health care services and primary schools were also involved in the programs. Today, all individuals 60 years and younger have been exposed to dental preventive programs during childhood and adolescence. These programs have been evaluated and adjusted in tandem with the changes in oral health. The oral hygiene programs have included education in oral health (diet, hygiene measures, and tobacco use), fluoride application (toothpaste, rinsing, and fluoride varnish), and fissure sealants for all permanent molars. The majority of the population attend dental care regularly. A decrease in the number of smokers and number of smoked cigarettes can also be seen over time which may have impacted on the prevalence of periodontitis in addition to improved oral hygiene. The continuous improvement in oral health and reduced need for restorative treatment have led to better health, lower costs, and improved life quality in all age groups as well as for the society at large
Journal of Oral Hygiene and Health