A1C blood test estimates your blood sugar levels
Type 1 diabetes is also called insulin-dependent diabetes. It used to be called juvenile-onset diabetes, because it often begins in childhood.
Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune condition. It happens when your body attacks your pancreas with antibodies. The organ is damaged and doesn't make insulin.
Your genes might cause this type of diabetes. It could also happen because of problems with cells in your pancreas that make insulin.
Many of the health problems that can come with type 1 happen because of damage to tiny blood vessels in your eyes (called diabetic retinopathy), nerves (diabetic neuropathy), and kidneys (diabetic nephropathy). People with type 1 also have a higher risk of heart disease and stroke.
Treatment for type 1 diabetes involves injecting insulin into the fatty tissue just under your skin. You might use:
- Insulin pens that use prefilled cartridges and a thin needle
- Jet injectors that use high-pressure air to send a spray of insulin through your skin
- Pumps that send insulin through a tube to a catheter under the skin of your belly
A test called the A1C blood test estimates your blood sugar levels over the previous three months. Your doctor uses it to see how well your blood sugar is controlled. That helps them know your risk of complications.
If you have type 1 diabetes, you’ll need to make changes including:
- Frequent testing of your blood sugar levels
- Careful meal planning
- Daily exercise
- Taking insulin and other medications as needed
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Journal of Clinical Diabetes